D R A F T  -    09/09/2014
Exploratory Analysis of Everglades Flow & Phosphorus Dynamics 
Library of Time Series & Diagnostic Charts Linked to Google Earth
prepared for
U.S. Department of the Interior & U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
by
William W. Walker, Jr., Ph.D.
Introduction
The extensive long-term hydrologic and water quality data stored in DBHYDRO are valuable resources to support Everglades research and management to achieve water quality and hydrologic restoration goals.  Interpretation of water quality data to support restoration management decisions and optimization of STA performance requires consideration of both concentration levels and their covariance with hydrologic conditions.  For example, an apparent long-term trend in concentration could reflect a trend in flow or water level in response to climatologic variations, as opposed to a response to management measures or basis to forecast future conditions.   A better understanding of the flow/concentration dynamics of the STAs is needed to develop operational plans to improve STA peformance.  Reports and Powerpoints often contain two-dimensional time series charts or tables of water quality data that do not convey the underlying variability and its assocation with hydrologic conditions (flow, depth, rainfall) or other factors, such as season, changes in sampling methods, and changes in water management.  Useful information in the data can be obscured by over-simplifications, decorations, and words.  
An integrated database of flow and water quality data has been developed to support exploratory analyses & modeling of phosphorus dynamics in the Everglades Basin & Stormwater Treatment Areas.  The platform allows rapid display of the data to reflect the covariance between hydrology and water quality while considering other dimensions of the data.
- Variables include flow [ Q ], TP concentration  [ C ], and TP load [ Q x C ].   Another metric,  "Excess Load" [ Q  x  ( C - Cb ), >=0 ], reflects the potential for a given discharge to have adverse water quality impacts downstream, as measured by an increase in concentration above background or target levels (Cb).  Other water quality variables, water depth, and stage and will be considered in future updates. 
- Spatial  dimensions are associated with site location, water body,  station type (structure vs. marsh vs. lake), and flow path in the STAs.  Most of the longterm sites with flow and concentration data in and south of Lake Okeechobee are included.
- Relevant time scales include daily, monthly, seasonal,  yearly, cumulative, and long-term.  
- Correlations among flow, load, and concentration are relevant to development of regional water management strategies to improve hydrology without adversely impacting water quality.   Similar correlations are relevant to the design and operation of the STAs to optimize performance.
- Variations in sampling frequencies & methods (grab vs. composite) impact precision, accuracy, and appropriate computation procedures for loads and flow-weighted-mean concentrations derived from flow and concentration data.  Consideration of these factors is especially important for evaluating performance, developing model input datasets, and optimizing monitoring networks for the STAs.
- Methods for computing annual concentrations (flow-weighted vs. geometric) and water year definitions (May-April, Oct-Sept) impact compliance assessments.
Software previously developed to support construction of DMSTA calibration datasets (Walker & Kadlec, 2005;  wwwalker.net/dmsta) has been adapted for this application.  The software links and integrates flow and water quality data pulled from DBHYDRO to produce daily, monthly, and yearly time series of flow, flow-weighted and geometric-mean concentrations, and load for each monitoring site.  Output datasets will be used to construct water and mass balances on the Everglades basins and develop input datasets to support DMSTA calibration.  A library of charts that display the data along various dimensions has been generated as a general reference to support exploratory analyses and QA/QC of the paired flow and concentration data.    To facilitate automation and expand graphics capabilities, the software platform (Excel / Access ) will be eventually be converted to the R programming language using templates recently developed for analyzing phosphorus trends in WCA-3A and ENP (wwwalker.net/ever_toc).  
The Period of Record in the current database is May 2002 - July 2014.   This reflects the period after refinements to SFWMD analytical procedures that lowered detection limits from 4 to 2 ppb and improvements to marsh sampling procedures.   Flow and/or concentration are provisional and/or incomplete for many sites in 2014.  
Chart Libraries
Three methods for accessing the output chart library are described below: Google Earth layers, PDF booklets, and Dashboards.  These generally reflect an increasing level of detail.  Linkage to Google Earth facilitates access and interpretation in a spatial framework that is ideal for analysis of Everglades datasets.  
Everglades Basin: Google Earth PDF Booklet Dashboard
WCA & ENP pump, structure, & marsh sites.  Lake Okeechobee inflow, lake, & outflow sites.
Stormwater Treatment Areas: Google Earth PDF Booklet Dashboard
STAs 1E, 1W, 2, 34, & 56.  Permit inflows & outflows. Flow-way start, interior, end, seepage , & bypass sites.
The extensive library of charts accessed via Google Earth, bookets, or dashboards is designed to expedite exploratory analysis in a spatial framework.  The intent is to develop a browser that will allow users to query subsets of the chart database for testing specific hypotheses or comparing sites in specific categories  (e.g.,  trends in P load to all STAs and source watersheds or P dynamics in STA emergent vs. SAV cells.).   
STA datasets can also be accessed via another portal (wwwalker.net/ever/stas) that supports modeling and data mining efforts under the Restoration Strategies Science Plan.   The charts illustrate responses of outflow concentration and load to inflow pulses, which are considered to be a major factor limiting P removal performance and a focus of the Restoration Strategies projects and research.
Google Earth Layers
Everglades Basin Stormwater Treatment Areas